This blog began as a journal of a Winston Churchill Memorial Trust Travel Award visit to the USA to study how Lifestyle Redesign could be used in Occupational Therapy to improve the hospital/home interface for older people. It has continued to record developments and inspiration gained from that experience since returning from Los Angeles early in 2012.

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Friday, 27 January 2012

Classes this week

I attended my regular classes this week.

Communication Skills for Effective Practice
This week we covered Interpersonal Skills, Listening, Verbal & Non Verbal Messages. Some of the course texts were reviewed and the Steven Covey literature was referred to (7 Habits etc).
The core text we are using throughout this module is:
Adler R & Elmhorst M (2009) Communicating at work: Principles & Practice for Business & the Professions.

The skill of active listening was discussed as not being listened to remains the number one complaint of patients in healthcare. The work of Peter Senge was introduced, see the quote below.  I also found one by Winston Churchill and thought it should be included as it is thanks to the Winston Churchill Memorial Trust that I have the opportunity to be here:

"To listen fully means to pay close attention to what is being said beneath the words. You listen not only to the 'music,' but to the essence of the person speaking. You listen not only for what someone knows, but for what he or she is. Ears operate at the speed of sound, which is far slower than the speed of light the eyes take in. Generative listening is the art of developing deeper silences in yourself, so you can slow our mind’s hearing to your ears’ natural speed, and hear beneath the words to their meaning."                                                                                                                                                                                                 - Peter Senge 


"Courage is what it takes to stand up and speak; courage is also what it takes to sit down and listen."
— Winston Churchill

Lifestyle Redesign Class
We began looking seriously at the literature and evidence for Lifestyle Redesign and to discuss and critique it in class. The readings are below and for anyone interested in learning more I would certainly recommend all of them and especially the first 4 'readings due' in the order given as they set out the research and development in the order it occurred. It is important to be aware that the 1997 paper at the top of the list described the first large scale randomised controlled trial of occupational therapy to be carried out.
Once again the importance of occupational storytelling or narrative as a means of not only forming a therapeutic connection with an individual, but as a tool to allow them to build an image of themselves that 'bridges' their pre and post self was an important part of the discussion. This theme is explored further in the first optional reading by Dr Clark on the list below.

Readings due:
Clark, F., Azen, S.P., Zemke, R., Jackson, J., Carlson, M., Mandel, D., et al. (1997). Occupational therapy for independent-living older adults: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 278, 1321-1326.

Jackson, J., Carlson, M., Mandel, D., Zemke, R., & Clark, F. (1998). Occupation in lifestyle redesign®: The Well Elderly Study occupational therapy program. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 52, 326-336.

Hay, J., LaBree, L, Luo, R., Clark, F., Carlson, M., Mandel, D., et al. (2002). Cost effectiveness of preventive occupational therapy for independent-living older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 50, 1381-1388.

Clark, F., Jackson, J., Carlson, M.,chou, C., Cherry, B., Jordan-Marssh, M., Knight, B., Mandel,
D., Blanchard, J., Granger, D., Wilcox, R., Lai, M., White, B., Hay, j., Lam, C., Marterella, A., Azen, S. (2011).  Effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention in promoting the well-being of independently living older people: results of the Well Elderly 2 Randomized Controlled Trial.    Journal of Epidemiology in Community Health:   doi:10.1136/jech.2009.099754

Optional readings:
Clark, F. (1993). Occupation embedded in a real life: Interweaving occupational science and occupational therapy. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 47(12), 1068-1077.

Clark, F., Azen, S.P., Carlson, M., Mandel, D., LaBree, L., Hay, J., et al. (2001). Embedding health-promoting changes into the daily lives of independent-living older adults: Long-term follow-up of occupational therapy intervention. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 56, 60-63.

Clark, F., et al. (1996). Life domains and adaptive strategies of the low income well elderly. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 50, 99-108.

Jackson, J. (1996). Living a meaningful existence in old age. In R. Zemke & F. Clark (Eds.), Occupational science: The evolving discipline (pp. 339-361). Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis Company.

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